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Footsoldiers of Empire: The Highland Regiments stationed across the Highlands with the intention of preventing cattle raiding, inter-clan warfare and carry out.

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Natural health products protest. Healing properties of honey. Alternative health therapies include a range of practices and products. Rather than using drugs and surgery, most treatments are intended to help the body heal itself or improve wellbeing. Because some of these therapies have not been scientifically verified, some people argue that they do not work.

People may choose alternative treatment because they are dissatisfied with conventional medicine, or they prefer not to take drugs. There is some scientific evidence for the value of acupuncture, chiropractic and osteopathy, and these treatments are sometimes used in the conventional health system. Most alternative health practices are unregulated — anyone can practise them, whether they are trained or not. However, there are organisations that monitor practitioners. Some doctors also use alternative treatments. Homeopathy is a system of alternative health treatment based on the idea that like cures like — a substance that causes symptoms in a healthy person can treat those symptoms in a sick person.

Remedies are made by diluting substances such as plants and minerals. Naturopathy can include herbal medicines, vitamins, homeopathy, massage and other natural treatments. Hypnotherapy uses hypnosis to put the patient into a very relaxed state in which they are receptive to suggestions, such as sleeping better or getting over depression.

Traditional Chinese medicine heals people using herbal medicine, acupuncture where fine needles are inserted into points on the body and exercises.

Some doctors — and even some vets — also use it. Spiritual healing uses faith in religion for healing purposes. It can involve prayers, commands and physical acts like the laying on of hands. Meditation involves calming and controlling the mind. When a substance comes from a group of organisms, then its proper name is usually the name of the substance.

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For example, Shark cartilage is a proper name. When an organism substance is produced by an organism, but is normally outside the organism, as in the case of Honey, then the proper name can be the name of the substance. Thus, Honey is a proper name. The Product Licensing guidance document states that the common name of an ingredient is "the name by which it is commonly known and is designated in a scientific or technical reference". However, in practice, especially for chemicals, determining an unambiguous common name is not always straightforward.

According to the terminology presented here, ingredient common names are mapped based on the following rules:.

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When a medicinal ingredient has a custom organism substance name that is constructed in the electronic Product License Application Form by choosing an organism, organism part, and preparation method , the name that appears in the Common Name field is a common name of the organism. The organism part appears in the Source Material field for the ingredient. Using the common name of the organism, the organism part, and the preparation method, a common name for the organism substance can be assembled.

Carrot seed extract. When a defined organism substance is chosen as a medicinal ingredient in the electronic Product License Application Form, the proper name is normally the scientific name of the organism, but the name in the Common Name field is a name of the defined organism substance, rather than a common name of the organism. For example, ingredient Saskatoon berry extract has "Saskatoon berry extract" in the Common Name field and "Amelanchier alnifolia" as its proper name.

For a particular scientific name, the subordinate taxa are scientific subdivisions. For example, for the species Chamerion angustifolium, a name of a subordinate taxon is Epilobium angustifolium subsp. Each name must be supported by at least one authorized reference.

Generally, ingredients included in the terminology set must be supported by at least one authoritative reference. It is important to note that the citation of an authority or reference for a name in the terminology does NOT imply that the standard specified by that authority is applicable to the substance used in a particular natural health product. If no standard is specified for a substance, then the quality of the substance should comply with the requirements as defined in the Evidence for Quality in Finished Natural Health Product guide.

Conflicts may occur amongst certain authorized references with regards to the scientific names of organisms. The primary binomial name of a species may vary from one reference to another, or may even be put into different taxonomy nodes. The ingredient naming standard terminology captures ingredient names and other NHPD-approved ingredient related information. The terminology captures the following data elements:.

Some defined organism substances are organisms and other defined organism substances are derived from organisms. In the NHP Ingredients Database, organisms can be identified by family, genus, species, subspecies, varieties, strains, and forms. In addition, some groups of organisms are included in the database, for example sharks.

Aggregated categories are also used for convenience, such as with the ingredient search tools. A chemical substance in some cases is a purified constituent of a defined molecular structure, which may be isolated from a plant or a plant material, an alga, a bacterium, a fungus or a non-human animal material; may be chemically synthesized; and may have a medicinal, non-medicinal, or non-NHP role.

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Inherently, herbal components are chemicals as well. However, since herbal components are not isolated for medicinal or non-medicinal use, they have been assigned an individual category. The NHPID name together with the reference will define the molecular species in the case of a single substance; the composition of the substance in the case of a mixture; or the characteristics of a variable material.

However, when specifications for a substance are provided in the reference for the NHPID name such as the United States Pharmacopeia , these are not usually the specifications required for the substance when used as an ingredient. Table 1 provides an explanation of how chemical substance information is organized and displayed in the NHP Ingredients Database. Herbal components HCN are chemical compounds or groups of chemical compounds that are components of plant and plant materials.

Herbal components themselves cannot be medicinal or non-medicinal ingredients and their role can only be defined as a Component see Section 6.

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Since all herbal components are chemicals in nature, naming herbal components follows the convention of naming general chemicals. Furthermore, herbal components belong to one of the five following chemical classes: carbohydrates and lipids, nitrogen-containing compounds, alkaloids, phenolics, and terpenoids. Each class is further divided into several subclasses. An herbal component can be contained in various herbal substances and the relative quantities may vary. Table 2 provides an explanation of how herbal component information is organized and displayed in the NHP Ingredients Database.

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  • Proteins consist of amino acids which are a class of organic molecules that contain amino and carboxyl groups. Proteins can be found in parts of plants, algae, fungi, bacterium or non-human animal material. Enzymes primarily act as a catalyst increasing the rate at which a specific biochemical reaction occurs. Enzymes are considered to be protein molecules and are mainly of three types: metabolic enzymes, digestive enzymes and food enzymes. Table 3 provides an explanation of how protein information is organized and displayed in the NHP Ingredients Database.

    The naming standard for ingredients from organisms i. Latin binomials , approved names found in authoritative references, and approved names assembled from organism names, organism part names, and preparation methods found in an authoritative reference. Herbal substances are preparations of plants, and other organisms that are treated as plants in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, such as fungi and blue-green algae.

    Biological substances are substances of biological origin that are not antibiotics; biological substances are derived from non-human animals and bacteria other than blue-green algae. In the NHP Ingredients Database, an organism that has been included in the database has a page with the main heading "Organism" that includes information on the organism's family and usually information on taxonomical synonyms and subordinate taxa. Those organisms which have medicinal roles have a second web page which also has "Organism" as the main heading; this page indicates that the organism has a medicinal role.

    An organism with a medicinal role can be chosen as a medicinal ingredient in the electronic Product Licence Application Form. Although the Organism -medicinal role page lists the parts as either Whole or Whole plant, and the preparation as Dry or Fresh, in the electronic Product Licence Application Form a wide range of parts and preparations can be selected to create a custom medicinal ingredient name. It must be a scientific name usually a binomial Latin name supported by an authoritative reference.

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    For some authoritative references, see the Appendix, section An AHN consists of a genus name, species descriptor, and any subordinate taxonomical names such as subspecies, variety, and form when applicable.